Karachi (December 25, 2017 ): The 141st birth anniversary of Father of the Nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah is being celebrated across the country with traditional zeal and enthusiasm on Monday.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25 December 1876 in Karachi.At home, his family talked in Gujarati language, and the children also came to speak Kutchi and English.Except for Fatima Ali jinnah, little is known of his siblings. His father’s name was Jinnah Poonja (1857- 1901) and his mother’s name was Mithibai. Jinnah was the eldest of the seven children of Jinnah Poonja and Mithibai. His family had migrated to Sindh from the Kathiawar area of Gujarat, India In 1891(when he was fifteen), Jinnah went to London and worked for few years for a company. Before going to London, he was married to Emibai. She was his distant relative. At the time of her marriage, Emibai was around 14 or 16 years old. But, Emibai died shortly after Jinnah had gone to London. At around the same time, his mother also died.In 1894, Jinnah quit his job to study law. He joined the course at Lincoln’s Inn and graduated in 1896. While still in London, he also started to participate in politics. He greatly admired Indian political leaders Dadabhai Naoroji and Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. Gradually Jinnah was developing his own political outlook. He was thinking on the line that India should have a constitutional self-government.Around this time, his father lost his business. This put Jinnah under great difficulty. In the meantime, he had started to practice as a lawyer in Mumbai. He also built a house in Mumbai’s Malabar Hill area. The house is now known as Jinnah House.He became a successful lawyer. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a famous leader of India, once used Jinnah to work as a lawyer. Tilak was facing charges of sedition against the British Raj.On 25 January 1910, Jinnah became a member on the sixty-member Imperial Legislative Council. He was an active member of the Council. Like many other leaders of India At the beginning Jinnah had avoided joining the All India Muslim League, another political organization of India. Muslims had formed the League in 1906. In 1913, Jinnah became a member of the Muslim League. In 1916, he became the president of the Muslim League. He helped in making an agreement between the Congress and the Muslim League(Lucknow Pact in 1916).
In 1918, Jinnah married again. His second wife was Rattanbai Petit. She was twenty-four years younger than him. She was the daughter of Jinnah’s personal friend Sir Dinshaw Petit The Jinnah couple resided in Bombay (now Mumbai) and frequently travelled to Europe. In 1919, his wife bore a daughter who was named Dina.Many Muslim leaders of India like Aga Khan III, Coudhary Rahmat Ali and Sir Muhammad Iqbal requested Jinnah to come back to India.The leaders of the Muslim League wanted him to take charge of the Muslim League. Jinnah agreed to come back to India. In 1934, he left London and returned to India to reorganize the Muslim league again. But he could not revive the stature of the party until after the elections of 1937 as the Muslim League won only a few seats. However, at this time, the League was helped by the powerful Premier of the Punjab, Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan. On October 1937, he agreed with Jinnah’s Muslim League joining his strong government. This was called the Jinnah-Sikandar Pact.His differences with the Congress Party continued to become bigger. In 1930, some Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal had argued for a separate country for the Muslim people of India. At last he came to the conclusion that Hindus and Muslims cannot live in a single country.Jinnah also started to have the idea of a separate country for Muslims of India. Jinnah and the Muslim League started work to get such a separate country. They made a plan for this in 1940 called the Pakistan Resolution. This new country was to be named Pakistan.In 1941, Jinnah founded a newspaper, named the Dawn. This newspaper published the views and political thinking of the Muslim League.After the Second World War, Great Britain started steps to give independence to India. On 16 May 1946, the British announced plan for a united India. One month after, on 16 June 1946, the British announced another plan to partition the British Raj into two countries, one for the Hindus and one for the Muslims.The Congress Party accepted the plan of the 16 May 1946. The Muslim League under Jinnah’s leadership accepted both the plans. But, on 16 August 1946, Jinnah also announced the Direct Action to achieve independence for Pakistan, a separate country of Muslims of the former British Raj. After several rounds of discussion, the British Raj was partitioned (in August 1947) into two countries, India and Pakistan. In 1971, Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan. The British Raj of India was partitioned into two countries, namely, India and Pakistan. Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan, his sister Fatimah Jinnah became the “Mother of the Nation”. He also became the president of Pakistan’s constituent assembly. In an address to the constituent assembly on 11 August 1947, Jinnah told about the future of Pakistan as a secular state. He told this in the following words:You may belong to any religion caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state. In due course of time, Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state
Jinnah had been suffering from tuberculosis since the early 1940s. Only his sister, and very few other persons close to the family knew this. After partition of India and creation of Pakistan, he had become the governor general of Pakistan. His work was increased, but his health was deteriorating. To regain his health, he spent many months at his official rest house. The rest house was located at a place named in Ziarat. Jinnah could not regain his health. He died on 11 September 1948 from tuberculosis and lung cancer.At the place of his funeral, the government of Pakistan has constructed a big mausoleum. His house named Jinnah House is under the possession of the government of India. The government of India wants to give the house to the government of Pakistan. But, the position is not clear till now.